In the United States there are over 3,000 kinds of spiders. They live in all parts of the world. Spiders are valuable for their role as predators and are natural regulators of the
insect population. However, some spiders when found in or around structures can be considered pests, particularly those that are poisonous. Fear of spiders encourages
many people to insist on their control even if the spider represents no significant threat or problem. The shape of a spider is well known. Spider’s eyes are in the front and
they have no antennae. While all spiders are venomous to some degree, few bite humans. The rear opening is located near the end of the abdomen, and nearby are some
short appendages called the spinnerets. Silk webbing threads out from the spinnerets. All spiders produce silk, and they use the silk they make in more interesting ways than
Bees are flying insects that are part of the insect order Hymenoptera. They are known for their role in pollination and the production of honey and beeswax. They have
complete metamorphosis. There are nearly 20,000 known species of bees found on every continent except Antarctica. They can be found in every habitat on the planet that contains insect-pollinated flowering plants.
Adult bees are nectar feeders. Some adult bees paralyze insects or spiders for food. They are normally considered to be highly beneficial, however bees can be nuisances
around buildings due to the fact that they forage for food among flowers and around outdoor dining areas. They can also become nuisances when they build their hives in
wall voids, attics, and other areas in or near buildings. Their hives can also be the source of carpet beetle infestations. Bees are infamous and feared because they defend themselves with a painful, venomous sting. The sting can cause varying amounts of swelling.
Allergic Sensitive people are at most risk from these effects as bee venoms can evoke severe allergic reactions, known as anaphylaxis. Allergic individuals may become hypersensitive to the venom’s complex amino acids, proteins and enzymes. Occasionally, the reaction can be so severe that a sensitive person may die shortly after
a sting, unless they receive medications to counteract the allergic effects.
Bees have a long proboscis (a complex “tongue”) which enables them to obtain the nectar with ease from flowers. They have antennae almost universally
made up of 13 segments in males and 12 in females, as is typical for the superfamily. They all have two pairs of wings, the hind pair being the smaller of the two.The best-known bee species is the European honey bee, which as its name suggests, produces honey, as do a few other types of bees. Human management of this
The house mouse can easily adapt to life among people. Mice can thrive in a wide range of climatic conditions and in a great variety of habitats. Mice normally feed
on most human food and reproduce at a remarkable rate. They can be found throughout the United States and in most areas of human habitation.
They can also be found living in the wild while competing with native fauna. House mice are not only a common problem in homes, but in all types of businesses as well,
and have the potential to transmit diseases and parasites to people and domestic animals.Life Cycle House mice breed year round. Environmental conditions influence frequency of pregnancies, litter sizes, and survival. If the conditions are ideal,
Ants are amongst the most leading pests in households. Most ants have the ability to bite with their pincer-like. The reason for ants being the most bothersome pests
is because they appear in large numbers and can nest in wall cavities or other part of structures. When ants are in nature, they can perform advantageous functions
by preying on certain species of insect pests and aerating soils. Ants are part of the insect order Hymenoptera, which makes them close relatives of bees and wasps.
Ants are social insects that have duties which are divided among different types of adult individuals. Queens conduct the reproductive functions of a colony, which include
laying eggs, participating in feeding and grooming. Females that are not able to reproduce become workers that gather food, feed, and care for the larvae, build tunnels,
and defend the colony. Larger workers with well-developed jawbones are called soldiers. Males do not contribute in colony activities; their only apparent purpose is to mate
with the queens, after which the male dies. Males are usually larger than workers, but smaller than the female reproductiveAnts have narrow or pinched waists; which is,
their bodies are very thin where the abdomen and thorax join. Their antennae are elbowed, which means that each antennae have the look of an arm bent at the elbow. Fully winged adult ants are often confused with swarmer termites, but they can be differentiated based on the following:
1. Ants have elbowed antennae and termites have straight, beadlike antennae.
2. Ants have pinched waist lines, while the bodies of termites are virtually the same width from end to end.
3. The front wings of ants are longer than their rear wings, while both pairs of wings of termites are about the same length.
Life CycleAnts have a complete metamorphosis; the development stages they have are egg, larva, pupa and adult. Ant eggs are very small and vary in shape according to
species. Upon hatching a soft, legless larva is formed. After feeding and passing through several molts, the larvae pupate. The pupa bears a resemblance to the adult, but it
is soft, white, and does not move or feed. The adult may require a few days to attain complete maturity after developing from the pupa stage. Six to eight weeks or more are
required for the development from egg to the adult stage can be complete. Ants require water for drinking and will travel long distances for it if necessary. This is normally the
reason for finding most ants in kitchens or bathrooms of residences or commercial buildings. The types of ants that invade homes and buildings include the argentine, odorous
house, pharaoh, thief, and carpenter ants. Other species such as imported fire ants may be occasional indoor pests. Harvester, cornfield, pyramid and other species of ants usually
nest outdoors but can also occasionally invade structures.
Cockroaches have been around for more than 300 million years. The modern cockroach has a need for warm and moist climates. There are more than 3,500 kinds of
cockroaches around the world. Almost all cockroaches are fairly similar in general shape and appearance. They are nocturnal and usually stay in the dark whenever possible.
When you see roaches in the open or in the light, it usually means that a large infestation is present. Cockroaches normally also like tight places where their bodies can touch surfaces that are both above and below. Roaches seek varied living spaces to accommodate their increasing size.
Bed bugs are parasitic insects of the Cimicidae family that feed solely on blood. Bed bugs normally feed on the blood of humans, but they also suck blood from other
animals, birds and bats. They usually feed at night when people are asleep. When they feed, bed bugs inject a secretion into the wound which often causes the skin to itch
and become swollen. It’s not a good idea to scratch the itch as it causes sores which may become infected. The adult bed bug is brown, has no wings, and is about 1/4 inch
long. When bed bugs are hatched they are almost colorless and similar to the adult except they are much smaller. When they are full of blood, the body becomes
swollen, and the color changes from brown to dark red. Throughout the day, bed bugs hide in many different places. The most common hiding places are
in cracks in the walls, behind baseboards, around the tufts of mattresses, and in bed clothes. Bed bugs have a bad odor that comes from the oily liquid they emit.
The way that bed bugs can get into your house is by being carried into homes in clothes, second-hand beds, and bedding, furniture, suitcases, or by people.
Life Cycle and Habits:
When Bed bugs lay eggs they are 1/25 inch long and are slightly curved. The eggs are then fastened with a cement to any cracks, crevices, or rough surfaces.
The eggs hatch in between 6 to 10 days. Bed bugs have five nymphal stages, and it usually takes 35 to 48 days for nymphs to mature. Female bed bugs can deposit
10 to 50 eggs at a time. Which means that a total of 200 to 500 eggs can be produced per female. Bed bugs can survive for six months to a year without a blood meal.
They have also been known to live in abandoned houses for up to a full year. Surviving without humans is no problem as they get by as a result of attacking birds and
Management Guidelines for Bed Bugs:
Ticks are part of the arachnida of the subclass Acari. There are over 650 species of ticks. Ticks have four stages in their life cycle: egg, larva, nymph and adult.
Ticks feed only on the blood of amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds. Ticks are large and have recurved teeth or ridges on the central mouthparts.
They also have a sensory pit on each of the first pair of legs, which detects stimuli such as heat and carbon dioxide. Ticks also have the ability to detect light and dark
as well as shapes, shadows and vibrations.
Silverfish are flattened insects that are wide near the head and narrowing toward the rear of the abdomen. They are wingless, covered with scales and have long slender
antennae. Silverfish are insects that develop without metamorphosis and have chewing mouthparts. They are covered with silvery-gray scales. Silverfish normally live in
moist areas indoors or outside, and can usually be found underneath boxes, boards, and debris. Silverfish feed upon starchy and protein materials such as natural fabrics,
rayon, highly refined paper, glue and paste, as well as books and linens. They commonly leave yellowish stains on the materials they feed upon. As a result of their nocturnal
habits, silverfish often go unnoticed during the day.
Fleas are small and wingless insects. Adult fleas have piercing sucking mouthparts and feed on the blood of warm blooded animals. They have complete metamorphosis.
Usually the eggs get dropped while the female is on the host, and can take two days to several weeks to hatch. Larvae are slender, straw-colored, wormlike creatures.
They are also legless and have chewing mouthparts. They feed on all types of organic debris including the feces of adult fleas that contain partially digested blood.
When they are mature, the larvae spin cocoons which are covered with sand and organic debris to then change into pupae. This process normally lasts from a week to a
month. Adults can fight starvation for prolonged periods both before and after feeding. However, in order to produce eggs, a blood meal is required. Hot and dry conditions can reduce flea development. However, humid and rainy periods favor population buildups.